- CADD COMPUTER:
Computer specifically designed to run computer aided drafting and design software.
Cadmium is a silvery-white metallic element that is used in a variety of manufacturing operations, including the manufacture of batteries, coatings, alloys, and pigments. Cadmium is a heavy metal.
- CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS (CCR):
Regulations established by the state to regulate many issues within the state including, but not limited to, contaminate levels in the soil and water released from various forms including Underground Storage Tanks.
- CALIFORNIA ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT (CEQA):
First enacted in 1970 to provide long-term environmental protection, the law requires that governmental decision-makers and public agencies study the significant environmental effects of proposed activities, and that significant avoidable damage be avoided or reduced where feasible.
- CALIFORNIA HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE:
Codes that were created to ensure an efficient petroleum UST cleanup program that adequately protects public health and safety and the environment.
- CANCER RISK:
A number, generally expressed in exponential form (i.e., 1 x 106, which means one in one million), which describes the increased possibility of an individual developing cancer from exposure to toxic materials. Calculations producing cancer risk numbers are complex and typically include a number of assumptions that tend to cause the final estimated risk number to be conservative.
- CAPILLARY ACTION:
The means by which liquid moves through the porous spaces in a solid, such as soil, plant roots, and the capillary blood vessels in our bodies due to the forces of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension. Capillary action is essential in carrying substances and nutrients from one place to another in plants and animals.
- CAPILLARY FORCE:
The force acting on soil moisture in the unsaturated zone, attributable to molecular attraction between soil particles and water.
- CAPILLARY FRINGE:
The zone immediately above the water table, where water is drawn upward by capillary attraction. The water within the capillary fringe is known as capillary water, and can move slowly and in any direction.
- CAPILLARY WATER:
(See CAPILLARY FRINGE)
- CARBON ADSORPTION:
The process of removing organic contaminants from groundwater and surface water by forcing it through tanks of activated carbon where the contaminants are physically adsorbed into the carbon grain.
- CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCL4):
A colorless, nonflammable toxic liquid that was widely used as a solvent in dry-cleaning and in fire extinguishers.
- CATALYTIC OXIDIZERS:
An off-gas post-treatment unit for control of contaminant compounds in the air stream. The catalyst allows contaminant removal at a lower temperature due to the catalytic chemical reaction, thus uses less energy, costs less, and can target specific contaminants.
The common name for sodium hydroxide, a strong base. Also used as an adjective to describe highly corrosive bases.
See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.
- CHEMICAL DEHALOGENATION:
A chemical process that removes halogens (usually chlorine) from chemical contaminants such as PCBs and dioxins, rendering the contaminants less hazardous. Treatment time is short, energy requirements are moderate, O&M costs are relatively low, and the possibility of on-site treatment eliminates the need to transport hazardous wastes.
A volatile organic compound that is often used as a solvent and in the production of other chemicals. It is a colorless liquid with an almond-like odor.
- CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE:
An insecticide and herbicide containing three metals: copper, chromium and arsenic. This salt is used extensively as a wood preservative in pressure-treating operations. It is highly toxic and dissolves in water, making it a relatively mobile contaminant in the environment.
A hard, brittle, grayish heavy metal used in tanning, in paint formulation, and in plating metal for corrosion protection. It is toxic at certain levels and, in its hexavalent, (versus trivalent) form, chromium is listed as a cancer-causing agent under Proposition 65.
- CHRONIC EXPOSURE:
Repeated contact with a chemical over a period of time, often involving small amounts of toxic substance.
- CLASS I LANDFILL:
A landfill permitted to accept hazardous wastes.
- CLEAN AIR ACT:
A federal law passed in 1955 and extensively modified in 1970. It is enforced by the California Air Resources Board and the local air quality management or air pollution control districts, as well as by U.S. EPA nationally.
- CLEAN WATER ACT (CWA):
A federal law of 1977 enforced by U.S. EPA. A key provision is that “any person responsible for the discharge of a pollutant or pollutants into any waters of the United States from any point source must apply for and obtain a permit.” This is reflected by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), through which the permits are issued by Regional Water Quality Control Boards. Permits are now being required for stormwater runoff from cities and other locations.
- CLEANUP FUND:
State of California funding for the cleanup of soil contamination from Underground Storage Tanks. Also known as SB2004, the Fund, and the USTCF. Not to be confused with superfund or other federal programs. Moneys are derived from a fee on each gallon of gas sold in the state.
Cleanup is the term used for actions taken to deal with a release or threat of release of a hazardous substance that could affect humans and/or the environment. The term sometimes is used interchangeably with the terms remedial action, removal action, response action, or corrective action.
Real or personal property given, assigned or mortgaged to secure a loan or the obligation. In real estate lending, typical collateral is the property pledged or mortgaged by a borrower to a lender to secure a loan.
- COLLECTION SITE:
A stream, lake, reservoir, or other body of water fed by water drained from a watershed.
- COMMON LAW:
A body of court decisions based on custom, traditional usage and precedent, as that of England rather than codified written laws.
- COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA):
Also known as Superfund, this Federal law authorizes U.S. EPA to respond directly to releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment.
- COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY INFORMATION SYSTEM:
A database that serves as the official inventory of Superfund hazardous waste sites.
- CONCEPTUAL SITE MODEL (CSM):
A planning tool in the site investigation process that organizes information that already is known about a site and identifies the additional information necessary to support decisions that will achieve the goals of the project. The project team then uses the CSM to direct field work that focuses on the information needed to remove significant unknowns from the model. The CSM serves several purposes – as a planning instrument; as a modeling and data interpretation tool; and as a means of communication among members of a project team, decision makers, stakeholders, and field personnel.
The process of water vapor in the air turning into liquid water. Water drops on the outside of a cold glass of water are condensed water. Condensation is the opposite process of evaporation.
- CONE PENETROMETER TEST (CPT):
A truck mounted rig that pushes coiled tubing into the ground taking measurements or samples as it goes.
- CONFINED AQUIFER:
An aquifer whose upper, and perhaps lower, boundary is defined by a layer of natural material that does not transmit water readily. (See ARTESIAN WATER.)
- CONFINING LAYER:
A geological formation characterized by low permeability that inhibits the flow of water.
- CONSUMPTIVE USE:
That part of water withdrawn that is evaporated, transpired by plants, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. Also referred to as water consumed.
Any petroleum constituents introduced into soil or groundwater that will adversely affect its quality.
- CONVEYANCE LOSS:
Water that is lost in transit from a pipe, canal, or ditch by leakage or evaporation. Generally, the water is not available for further use; however, leakage from an irrigation ditch, for example, may percolate to a ground-water source and be available for further use.
- CORING EQUIPMENT:
Equipment needed to remove concrete or asphalt before borings can be installed.
- CORRECTIVE ACTION REPORTS:
Report prepared for local regulatory agencies documenting steps taken to remediate a site.
- CORRECTIVE ACTION:
Activity necessary to investigate and analyze the effects of an unauthorized release; propose a cost-effective plan to adequately protect human health, safety, and the environment and to restore or protect current and potential beneficial uses of water; and implement and evaluate the effectiveness of the activity.
A characteristic of acidic and basic hazardous wastes. The characteristic is defined by a waste's pH and its ability to corrode steel. A waste is corrosive if it has a pH less than or equal to 2.0 or greater than or equal to 12.5.
Chemicals used in wood preserving operations that are produced by distilling coal-tar.
A condition created when a drill hole, boring, or improperly constructed well forms a pathway for fluid movement between a saturated zone which contains pollutants and a formerly separated saturated zone containing ground water. Also where potable and sanitary services are interconnected.
- CUBIC FEET PER SECOND (cfs or ft3/s):
A rate of the flow, in streams and rivers, for example. It is equal to a volume of water one foot high and one foot wide flowing a distance of one foot in one second. One cfs is equal to 7.48 gallons per second; 448.8 gallons per minute; 646,317 gallons per day. As an example, if your car's gas tank were 2 feet by 1 foot by 1 foot (2 cubic feet), then gas flowing at a rate of 1 cubic foot/second would fill the tank in two seconds.
A highly toxic chemical often used in metal finishing or in extraction of precious metal from ore.
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